For land management purposes, the Fermilab site can be divided into tracts based on current land use. The figure following this section of the plan shows these tract boundaries. Tracts with labels beginning "TA" are used exclusively for the Laboratory mission, i.e. the management of those tracts is dictated by the mission of the Lab. Although the other tracts have uses besides the research mission, all of the tracts do contribute to the Lab mission in various ways. For example, all the tracts are part of the water-run-off collection system that channels water to the lakes which are used for industrial water.
Tracts with labels beginning "AG" are leased for agricultural use. Tracts with labels beginning "RA" are used primarily for non-programmatic, "recreational" purposes, e.g. tract RA-3 is the bison pasture. Tract R is the residential area in the Village. The remaining tracts, those with labels beginning "ELM", although important to the mission of the Laboratory, are currently being managed to enhance the natural resources of the Laboratory site according to sound ecological principles so as to create a permanent ecosystem that maintains or increases biological diversity, conserves natural resources, and improves the aesthetic appeal of Fermilab. This restoration is being carried out in a manner which will not interfere with the current or future mission of the Lab.
The Laboratory director created the Ecological Land Management Committee (ELM) to oversee and make recommendations to facilitate the restoration of the available tracts. One of the responsibilities of the Committee is to create a roadmap for the restoration effort. This plan is intended to fulfill that responsibility.
This plan addresses only those tracts available for restoration--ELM tracts. It does not discuss management of other tracts, although it describes every tract and references documents describing the management of other tracts.
The Fermilab Ecological Land Management (ELM) Committee's Long Range Management Plan provides long range plans for managing the available areas of the Laboratory site according to principles of ecosystem management and restoration. The planning process recognizes the value of and seeks to build upon the many different habitats present on the Fermilab site. Thus, the available area is divided into tracts, whose boundaries recognize the rich habitat diversity, e.g., uplands, woodlands, and wetlands. The tracts are identified in the Figure, Fermilab Land Management Plan, following this section of the Plan. We have kept the number of tracts small to minimize complexity and simplify understanding. Each tract encompasses an area that has some overall ecological coherence even though significant variations exist within it. Tract boundaries are not meant to be absolute but are dynamic, and will vary with ecological considerations and management needs. The plan is intended to approach the entire site as a coherent whole.
Management Plans for each tract may be developed in at least two levels of detail. Every tract will have a "first level" plan. That plan will describe the location of that tract within the site, indicate any access restrictions, and characterize the habitat in an overall way, including lesser features of importance--e.g., prairie with a few small wetlands enclosed, or woods with a small area of mesic prairie. A recommended long range plan for the management of that tract is also provided. The plan will recommend management practices consistent with the long range objective--e.g., manage to improve the success of nesting grassland birds, or develop and expand the prairie portions, burning every 2 years. The plan will also include management techniques that are of importance to enhance lesser features of the habitat within the tract--e.g., preserve the small woodlot in the northeast corner. At this level, the plan will help the lay person understand the overall tract habitat and how we are managing it. The attached table, Tract Designations, Descriptions, and First Level Management Plans, contains the first level plans.
Some tracts may have more detailed descriptions and second level plans, developed as needed by the professionals in the field and those who implement the management plans. The amount of detail is left entirely to the judgment of the professionals and managers. There are no second level plans at this time.
As indicated in the plan strategy, this plan follows an ecosystem approach and seeks to increase native biodiversity within the Fermilab site. The ELM Committee recognizes that to date the efforts have focused primarily on restoration of plant communities. The plant communities represent a starting place for ecosystem restoration, and the ELM Committee is aware of the opportunities to expand efforts to restore other components of the ecosystem such as reptiles, amphibians, mammals, insects, and others. This plan takes into consideration any known animal habitat requirements, such as those for rare grassland birds. In future plans, an increased effort will be made to incorporate various wildlife considerations towards a more wholistic ecosystem restoration plan. Further research is needed in many areas, including additional baseline studies to document present conditions for many groups of organisms, before management recommendations can be made.
The areas below are outside the scope of the Long Range Management Plan, but the ELM Committee may, outside this Plan, make recommendations about ecological management of these areas to the responsible managers.
* All parts of the site that have current or planned programmatic use are excluded from this plan. In a few cases, parts of a programmatic area are in an ELM tract--however, this is for graphical convenience only. No recommendations, plans or management practices will negatively affect in any way the programmatic use of any part of the Fermilab site.
* Management of agricultural tracts is outside the scope of this plan. Any proposal that involves changes in the agricultural tract boundaries will need approval of the Director.
* The shorelines of the on-site lakes are a consideration in the management plan for the adjacent ELM tract. However, any recommendations for management of the lake shorelines will be coordinated with FESS, which is responsible for the management of the lakes and shorelines. The bodies of the lakes are outside the scope of the Long Range Management Plan. However, the ELM Committee may make recommendations to the Director regarding management issues, such as stocking or fishing.
* The water return ditches and the berms within the technical areas are outside the scope of this Plan. However, the ELM Committee may make recommendations to the Director regarding management issues, such as cover species.
* Most recreational areas will not be included in the management plans, e.g., Garden Club, Barnstormers (model airplane) Club, Model Rocket Club area, buffalo pastures and hay fields, and horse pasture. The Dog Run area is included--but only for the consideration of nesting grassland birds. The bike path and horse trails are marked on the map but not addressed in this plan. However, we note that horse trails are mowed for identification purposes. The Laboratory maintains the nature trails, Margaret Pearson Trail, the Big Woods Trail, and the Education Center Trail for the convenience of the people using them.
* The Village technical and residential areas are excluded from this plan. The utilities corridor along the east side of the Lab is also not included in this plan.
The Long Range Management Plan is intended to provide a long range coherent vision for the development of the non-programmatic areas of the Lab. It is not intended to set management priorities or propose year-to-year activities. The Plan is seen as a living document and will be updated annually by the ELM Committee to reflect experience, lessons learned, and changing management needs. Significant changes to the Long Range Management Plan will be submitted to the Director for approval.
Each year the ELM Committee will review the Long Range Management Plan and, taking into account the available resources, advise the Lab Director on the priorities for activities during the next year. When approved by the Director, this advice becomes the recommended Annual Plan of activities. Those carrying out the Annual Plan will make minor changes as they deem appropriate. Significant proposed changes will be discussed with the ELM Committee and brought to the attention of the Director.
1. The Committee recommends, to the extent the Lab allows dogs to run lose on the site for training purposes, such activity be restricted to ELM-15. There is a concern that loose dogs will interfere with bird nesting and other wild life activities. The Committee believes the impact on wildlife can be minimized by restricting the activity to one tract.
2. The Committee suggests whenever significant revegetation opportunities occur due to construction or other activities, the Lab should give the ELM Committee an opportunity to propose a revegetation plan consistent with good ecological management.
3. The Committee suggests the Lab use temporary signage to protect the nesting sites of uncommon birds from accidental disturbance.
|Tract Type[1 |
|Site Location ||DESCRIPTION ||FIRST LEVEL MANAGEMENT PLAN |
Inside the Tevatron berm and extending northeast
|This tract contains the land inside of the Tevatron berm. The original prairie restoration project is near the center of the tract. There are several NERP study areas and a replicate deer exclosure/control area. There are 3 separate groves of trees--ELM-2, ELM-3, and a grove of cottonwoods to the south. There are two water bodies, one in the center and one along the east side. The interface between the water and the prairie forms a wetland complex. There is a great blue heron rookery near the center of this tract. The American Lotus is found in the eastern water body. The berm and land within are part of the technical areas--thus access to them is controlled. Typically, in the fall, this tract is the site of volunteer hand harvest of seed for the enrichment of other prairie areas on-site. Some seed harvested this way is traded off-site for seed of species which are needed here for enrichment. ||Continue current enrichment practice of overseeding needed species. Prairie areas should be burned every 2 to 3 years. The cottonwood grove in the far south needs to be removed. The deer exclosure areas will be utilized to conduct experiments. |
Near the center of the Tevatron berm
|This tract contains a potentially high quality oak savanna with degraded, brushy understory. It is located near the center of the Tevatron berm-within ELM-1. Access is restricted as in ELM-1. ||The weedy brush should be eliminated. It is recommended that the tract be overseeded with savanna understory species. An annual burn is recommended for the next few years, until underbrush is under control. After that, burning every three years is also recommended. |
Western part of the interior of the Tevatron berm
|This tract contains a wet woodland which is in poor condition with many weedy tree species. This is a much wetter woods than ELM-2. Large sections are under water each year. It is located within ELM-1 and access has the same restrictions. ||This should be developed as a wet woods. The priority for this area is to study the composition of the forest and develop an intensive management plan. |
Eastern portion of the Main Injector and extending south and east.
|This tract includes some technical facilities, the southeastern part of the Main Injector berm and some service buildings, and thus access is restricted in some of the northern parts of this tract. This tract is characterized as a mesic prairie with some wet prairie features. There are two small woods, Girl Scout Woods to the north and Site 14 Woods to the south. Girl Scout Woods is wetter. Our only mature blue ash and white walnut are within this tract. Also included are several mature shellbark hickories and a Biltmore ash. There is a series of NERP experimental areas designed to test successional dynamics theories. The wetland mitigation project from the Main Injector construction is located in the northern part of this tract. ||Continued current enrichment practices of overseeding needed species in the prairie areas is recommended. The prairie should be burned every other year. The wooded areas can be burned every 2-3 years, overseeded with woodland understory species and enriched with appropriate trees. The two woods should have different management techniques. The northern section of the prairie area will be developed after the Main Injector construction is finished. Activities in this tract should be coordinate with the NERP researcher (Sluis). |
Along the southern boundary of the site.
|This tract is a long narrow strip of land located along most of the south side of the site, adjacent to Butterfield Road. Some trees were planted here in the early 1970's. The tract is characterized as a mixed wooded area with a lot of brush, poor in floristic quality. ||This area should be burned in thirds, one third each year. The objective is to maintain the underbrush at a minimum in order to keep this area in an intermediate successional stage. This will preserve a relatively isolated and very diverse scrubby habitat for wildlife. This management technique will sustain one of the few breeding areas for Bell's vireo and yellow-breasted chats. |
South of the Tevatron
|This tract is located just south of the Tevatron berm. It is characterized as a poor quality wetland with potential to be developed as a sedge meadow. ||The primary focus for development should be the wetlands. However, there is opportunity for some prairie development in the southern part. |
Southeast corner of the site.
|This tract is a small, inactive NERP area located in the southeastern corner of the site. It contains a mixture of early stage mesic prairie areas and pasture grass areas. This tract, as well as ELM-8, ELM-12, and ELM-13, was prepared for a study of the differences in responses of prairie and pasture grasses to various environmental factors. ||To maximize the usefulness for potential future research, it is suggested that the prairie areas be burned and enriched as resources permit. The pasture grasses should be mowed or burned to discourage intrusion of brush, exotics, and trees. |
West of Tract ELM-7.
|This tract is a small, inactive NERP area located in the southeastern corner of the site, just east of Eola Road. It contains a mixture of early stage mesic prairie areas and pasture grass areas. (See ELM-7 for further description.) ||To maximize the usefulness for potential future research, it is suggested that the prairie areas be burned and enriched as resources permit. The pasture grasses should be mowed or burned to discourage intrusion of brush, exotics, and trees. |
Along the East side of the site-from Batavia road to Butterfield Road
|This tract is along the eastern border of the lab, extending from Batavia Road to Butterfield Road. It does not include the utility easement. The Sea of Evanescence is located within this tract. Also included is the shoreline of the AE Sea. There are pasture grass fields in the north, fallow ground to the south, areas of heavy mixed brush and several areas of previously planted trees. There is a potential for restored and reconstructed mesic prairie, wet prairie and wetlands. ||The priority for this tract is wetland development. Shorelines in this area are degraded, and should be given attention. (Any shoreline work must be coordinated with FESS.) New Prairie reconstruction in the southern portion is a lesser priority. The pasture grass fields should be mowed during the dormant season. |
East of Tevatron, west of Eola Road.
|This tract lies between the Tevatron berm and Eola Road. It is characterized as a wetland with some potential for mesic areas. ||It is recommendation that management of this area focus strongly on wetland development. There is also opportunity for some new prairie reconstruction. |
Along Eola Road-east of the Tevatron
|This tract lies in the southern part of the site, east of Eola Road. It has pasture grass fields, shrubs, and a wetland pocket in the south central portion of the tract. The Fermilab tree nursery and the Model Rocket Club site is in the northwestern part of the tract. ||Maintain the grassland cover by mowing every other year or burning. The shrub should be cut. The wetland should be enhanced through burning, control the water level with Agri-drain on drain tile, and possible plant community enrichment. Selective herbiciding may be used for problem species. |
North of Tract ELM-8.
|This tract is a small, inactive NERP area located in the southeastern corner of the site, just south of Lake Law. It contains a mixture of early stage mesic prairie areas and pasture grass areas. (See ELM-7 for further description.) ||To maximize the usefulness for potential future research, it is suggested that the prairie areas be burned and enriched as resources permit. The pasture grasses should be mowed or burned to discourage intrusion of brush, exotics, and trees. |
East of Tract ELM-12.
|This tract is a small, inactive NERP area located in the southeastern corner of the site, just south of the AE Sea. It contains a mixture of early stage mesic prairie areas and pasture grass areas. (See ELM-7 for further description.) ||To maximize the usefulness for potential future research, it is suggested that the prairie areas be burned and enriched as resources permit. The pasture grasses should be mowed or burned to discourage intrusion of brush, exotics, and trees. |
Between and south of Lake Law and the AE Sea.
|The shore lines of Lake Law and the AE Sea form the west and east boundaries of this tract. It is characterized as an intermediate stage successional tract. Some areas have invading brush with poor floristic quality. It contains a quality, 3 acre oak/hickory wooded area (Owl's Nest Woods) surrounded by recently planted mixed native woody species along the shore of the AE Sea. There is a hedge row along parts of the southern boundary of this tract. ||Each year roughly 10% of the largest non-native trees in this area should be selected for removal in order to keep this area in an intermediate successional stage. The goal is to preserve a relatively isolated and very diverse scrubby habitat for wildlife. Owl's Nest Woods should be buffered with a brushy edge, grading into a more open scrubby habitat. Shoreline erosion should be managed to protect valuable trees. |
Southeast corner of Batavia and Eola Roads
|This upland pasture grass field is located at the southeast corner of the corner of Batavia Road and Eola Road. It is designated as the Dog Run, it is available for public use. The shoreline areas of Lake Law are included. ||To keep a stable grassland, it may be necessary to mow annually late in the growing season. Maintenance activities should be scheduled to minimize the impact on nesting of grassland birds when practical. |
Along and on either side of Eola Road-north of Batavia Road.
|This tract is located north of Batavia Road, on both sides of Eola Road. The tract is characterized as pasture grass fields which are becoming weedier. There are wetland spots on both sides of Eola Road. The upland grasses provide excellent habitat for the nesting of grassland birds. ||The tract needs to be burned or mowed to control goldenrod, at a time and in a manner to minimize the impact on the nesting of grassland birds. A search is underway for an optimum technique that both protects the grassland birds and controls the goldenrod. |
West of the Village-North of Batavia Road
|This tract is similar in character to and just east of ELM-16. The pasture grass fields are becoming weedier. This tract also provides suitable habitat for the nesting of grassland birds. Some owls winter in this area. ||The tract needs to be burned or mowed to control goldenrod, at a time and in a manner to minimize the impact on the nesting of grassland birds. The optimum technique that both protects the grassland birds and controls the goldenrod is under study. |
Wraps around the north and west sides of the Village
|This tract wraps around the north and west sides of the Village, extending south of Batavia Road. It is characterized as a mixed wooded area with a lot of brush. The trees were planted more for aesthetics than for ecological reasons. Many of the trees are conifers. The tract has poor floristic quality but does provide wintering places for birds and some mammals. ||For aesthetic reasons mow the areas adjacent to Batavia Road and near the Village buildings. No other maintenance is needed. Allow the wooded area to fill in naturally. |
East of the Village.
|This tract lies along the eastern border of the site, north of Batavia Road. The eastern shorelines of DUSAF Pond and the Oxidation Pond are included. Some trees were planted in the southern part 25 years ago-more for aesthetics than ecological maintenance. There is pasture grass in the southern part. The west central area (along DUSAF Pond) contains densely invading brush which provides good bird habitat. There is a large white oak and ash in this area. ||The Oxidation Pond should be drained by breaching the dike and developing the old basin into a wetland. The brush along the northeastern shorelines of DUSAF Pond should remain undisturbed. The pasture grass areas should be mowed during the dormant season. |
Along the eastern boundary-south of Wilson Road.
|This tract lies along the eastern border of the site north of ELM-19. It contains emergent wetlands and wet prairie with mesic and upland features. There is also a prairie remnant in the tract that extends east to the railroad tracks in TA-4. ||It is recommended that some new prairie be developed. The remnant should be enriched and the emergent wetland developed. |
Northeastern corner of the site.
|This NERP area is located in the northeast corner of the site. It is characterized as young mesic and upland prairie plantings that have never had fire management. There are active NERP research projects in progress in this tract. ||Whenever the current or future NERP projects allow, this tract should be fire managed. Until then, annual mowing where possible would be desirable for brush control. |
North of railroad-east of McChesney Road.
|This tract lies north of the railroad and east of McChesney Road. It is old field with invading brush. This tract is relatively isolated from other tracts and therefore a minimal maintenance plan is desirable. ||The tract should be mowed and overseeded with prairie matrix. |
Northern part of the site-south of the railroad tracks-west of railhead storage area.
|The finest on-site remnant prairie is located in this tract. It is located along and south of the railroad, west of the railhead storage area. The southern part of this tract is currently being farmed. The eastern part of the tract is along the shores of Casey's Pond. ||The prairie remnant and the proposed 10 addition acres in the southern portion should be enriched and restored. It is of interest to see how the prairie remnant abutting the new area will spread into the new area. The remnant should be managed by fire. The area near Casey's Pond should be overseeded with prairie matrix. |
Western part of the site-extending from Wilson Road to south of Giese Road-east of and wrapping around Tract #25.
|Tract ELM-24 is located in the western part of the site. This tract contains the remnants of the Big Woods, between Pine Street and Road B. The Big Woods contains some of our highest floristic quality trees, herbaceous plants and flowering woodland species. There are many areas yet to be enriched with trees. There is some reconstructed prairie in the northern and southern parts. There are some programmatic areas included, the Lederman Education Center and the Receiving Complex (TA-3). In the far northwest corner is Lootens Woods which is adjacent to Site 29 Woods. ||The goal in this tract is to develop a large area of woods, maximizing the area to edge ratio. First priority is to connect existing wooded areas with future tree plantings to eliminate fragmentation. The woodland understory species should be enriched. Burns should be conducted every 2 or 3 years, the frequency should be determined in part by the prevalence of garlic mustard, or other invasive species. |
Along the west side of the site, from Giese RD to south of Wilson Street. Bordered on the east by Tract ELM-24.
|This tract is a newer prairie restoration area. Located along the western site boundary, on both sides of Pine Street, this tract contains Morgan's Woods (north of Pine Street), which has our only colonies of several woodland flowers. There are various wooded and wetland areas in the northwest corner of this tract. ||Continue the current enrichment practices of overseeding needed species in the reconstructed prairies. Continue the practice of moving plants (hepaticas etc.) in Morgan's Woods that are threatened by Kirk Road construction. Newer prairie areas should be burned every year. Older areas every other year. |
Along the west side of the site-south of Tract ELM-24. Includes the western part of the Main Injector.
|This tract is along the western site boundary, straddling the western part of the Main Injector berm. Access to the berm and the land within is restricted because these are technical areas. The western part of the tract is a pasture grass field. The northern part is mixed brush and small wooded areas. One small 2 acre plot of quality prairie exists northwest of the Main Injector berm. About 25 acres of quality prairie is inside the berm. An area of gentians is found in pasture grass area. ||New prairie reconstruction is recommended for pasture grass fields. Continue enrichment of the existing prairies, burning every 2 to 3 years. |
Along Indian Creek, inside the Main Injector.
|This tract lies almost entirely within the Main Injector berm. Access to this tract is restricted because it is within a technical area. The tract is a floodplain wood with swampy areas. ||Connect fragmented wooded areas with future tree plantings. The understory should be enriched. The adjacent wetlands should be maintained and enhanced. |
Northeast of the Tevatron Berm
|This tract is located just to the northeast of the Tevatron berm. It consists of recently reconstructed prairie. ||The recommended management is annual burning with intensive enrichment as available resources permit. |
Northern part of the site.
|This is an agricultural tract located north of the Burlington Northern Railroad track and west of McChesney Road. ||Maintain boundary markers. No maintenance by the Lab is needed. |
Northwestern part of the site.
|This agricultural tract is in the northern part of the lab; south of the Burlington Northern Railroad, west of McChesney, and north of Wilson Street. A small section extends south of Wilson Street. ||Maintain boundary markers. No maintenance by the Lab is needed. |
Northeastern part of the site.
|This is an agricultural tract in the northeastern corner of the site, lying east of McChesney and north of Wilson Street. ||Maintain boundary markers. No maintenance by the Lab is needed. |
Northeastern part of the site.
|This agricultural tract lies in the northeastern part of the Lab, south of Wilson Street. ||Maintain boundary markers. No maintenance by the Lab is needed. |
Southwestern part of the site.
|This tract of agricultural land is in the southwestern part of the Lab, east of Kautz Road. ||Maintain boundary markers. No maintenance by the Lab is needed. |
Southern part of the site.
|This tract of agricultural land is in the southern part of the site, west of Eola Road. ||Maintain boundary markers. No maintenance by the Lab is needed. |
Southeastern part of the site.
|This tract of agricultural land is in the southeastern corner of the site. ||Maintain boundary markers. No maintenance by the Lab is needed. |
Central part of the site.
|This is the main technical area. It contains, for example: the Railhead Storage Area, Casey's Pond, the external beam lines, the main substation, the Industrial Area, CDF, the Footprint area, P-Bar source, most of the Tevatron berm, D0, and Site 55. Public access is restricted in most of this area, the exception is the public areas of Wilson Hall. ||Refer to the Site Development Plan. |
Eastern part of the site.
|This tract, located in the eastern part of the site, contains the Village technical buildings, the Oxidation Pond, Garden Club plots, and the cooling ponds- Lake Law, AE Sea, and the DUSAF Pond. Public access is restricted only in the Village technical building areas. ||Refer to the Site Development Plan. |
Northwestern part of the site.
|Located north of Road B and south of Wilson Street, this tract contains Shipping & Receiving, Roads and Grounds, FESS Maintenance, the Fire Department, and the Refueling Station. This tract is surrounded by ELM-24, a woods area. ||Refer to the Site Development Plan. |
Along the eastern boundary.
|TA-4 contains the unity corridor along the eastern site boundary. Within the corridor there are easements for the electrical power lines and natural gas. ||This corridor is maintained by Commonwealth Edison. |
Southern part of the site-east of the Tevatron.
|The Horse Barn and Pasture are located in this tract. It is located between the Tevatron berm and Eola Road in the southern part of the site. ||Control noxious weeds. |
Central part of the site-northeast of the Tevatron.
|Tract RA-2 is a pasture grass field that is harvested to provide food for the bison. It is located in the southwest corner of the intersection of Eola Road and Batavia Road. ||No specific maintenance plan is needed. The harvesting provides sufficient control of brush and weeds. |
Central part of the site-north of the Tevatron.
|The Buffalo Barn and pasture is located in RA-3. This tract is located north of the Industrial Area, between Road D and Batavia Road. ||This is maintained as a pasture for the buffalo. |
Northwestern part of the site-northeast of TA-3
|This tract contains the Model Airplane Club flying field and the Pioneer Cemetery. It is located along the western part of Batavia Road, east of Receiving Road. The flying field is north of Batavia Road, the cemetery is south. ||Mow as needed. |
Residential area in the Village.
|This is the residential area in the Village. Besides housing it includes the Children's Center, Village Barn, tennis courts, swimming pool, and Users Center. ||Refer to the Site Development Plan. |
ELM Committee Membership August 1999
 - Type refers to the major breakdown categories of land use:
ELM = Ecological Land Management
AG = Agricultural
TA = Technical Area
RA = Recreational Area
R = Residential
 - General location on the Fermilab Site:
SE = Southeast
SW = Southwest
NW = Northwest
NE = Northeast
E = East
S = South
N = North
W = West
C = Central