Monitoring and surveillance
are critical elements of an effective environmental protection
program. Fermilab has established and implemented comprehensive
environmental monitoring and surveillance programs to ensure compliance
with legal and regulatory requirements imposed by Federal, State,
and local agencies and to provide for the measurement and interpretation
of the impact of Fermilab operations on the public and the environment.
The surveillance and monitoring activities are selected to be
responsive to both routine and unplanned releases of penetrating
radiation and liquid or airborne effluents. The location and
frequency of samples are based on established routines, operational
considerations and historic levels of pollutants found in each
location. Sampling locations are selected based on relative potential
for adverse impacts.
To evaluate the effects of Fermilab operations on the environment, samples of effluents and environmental media such as soil and groundwater are collected on the site and at the site boundary. These samples are analyzed and results are compared to applicable guidelines and standards. The status of environmental protection activities and the progress on environmental restoration, waste management and corrective action activities are discussed in this report. There were no abnormal occurrences that had an impact on the public, the environment, the facility or its operation in CY1997.
2.0 1997 Laboratory Highlights
In 1997 Fermilab concluded
an extensive 800 GeV fixed target run, reaching record-setting
intensities in the accelerator before shutting down the historic
Main Ring in mid-September 1997. Experiments ran in the Neutrino,
Meson and Proton Beamlines and beam also continued to be targeted
in the Antiproton Area. Dismantlement of the Main Ring has begun.
It will be replaced by the Fermilab Main Injector. The Fermilab
Main Injector construction progressed rapidly towards its goal
to be operational in 1999.
2.1 Significant Environmental Accomplishments
Fermilab received two environmental
awards in CY1997 for demonstrated leadership and excellence in
environmental development and awareness: The Renew America Award
was given to the Fermilab Natural Areas Restoration Project for
natural resource conservation and environmental sustainability
in the category of Biological Diversity/Wilderness. The Fermilab
Natural Areas Restoration Project was also awarded the Conservation
Foundation Award in recognition of land conservation, river and
watershed protection, education and community outreach.
The performance of the Fermilab
Activation Analysis Laboratory is regularly evaluated through
ongoing participation in the intercomparison program of quality
assurance conducted by DOEís Environmental Measurements
Laboratory (EML). Fermilab was one of only four labs to receive
a 100% acceptable rating out of the 116 laboratories that participated
A long-range land management
plan was developed in 1997 and has been approved by the Fermilab
Director. About thirty acres of new prairie were planted in three
tracts this year, adding to the more than 1000 acres of prairie
onsite in various stages of reconstruction.
Three new environmental research
projects were approved. The three new projects include studying
native grassland and non-native grassland bird breeding, quantifying
fuels/biomass in a tallgrass prairie, and identifying
mycorrhizal fungi associated
with several rare and difficult to establish prairie plant species.
Four other projects were active in 1997: Evolution of Plant
Defenses to Insect Herbivory, Soil and Mycorrhizal Fungi Response
to Prairie Restoration, Population Dynamics in Small Mammal Populations
Degrees of Predation Pressure, and
Successional Dynamics in a Prairie Reconstruction.
In 1997, after nearly six
years of study, Fermilab concluded that a program for deer population
control was necessary in order to reduce the size of the herd
that was causing extensive damage to the ecosystem and an increase
in car accidents onsite. Under an Interagency Agreement reached
in early 1997, the Wildlife Services of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA) analyzed the deer herd at Fermilab and prepared
an Environmental Assessment (EA) of deer management alternatives.
Approval for USDA to prepare an EA was obtained from DOE in
August of 1997 and a public meeting was held in October 1997.
Based on the proposal which considered numerous alternatives,
the USDA initiated a program of management that included lethal
removal, and succeeded in removing approximately 15% of the estimated
population. The program was accomplished with very few problems.
We expect to continue the program in the fall of 1998.
An EA was approved and a Finding
of No Significant Impact (FONSI) was issued in early 1998 for
the proposed NuMI beamline.
2.2 Other Environmental Issues
Fermilab's Low-level Radioactive
Waste (LLW) is transported to the Hanford facility in Richland,
Washington for disposal. The acceptance requirements for LLW
at Hanford are extremely stringent, and are accompanied by highly
technical survey techniques used to examine incoming wastes.
A sample (5%) of containers are regularly subjected to X-ray scanning
to ascertain whether any unauthorized objects or substances are
inside the containers. Fermilab has an outstanding reputation
with Hanford for accuracy and completeness in characterizing our
waste shipments to them. Nevertheless, a small 9-volt battery
was discovered through a radiographic scan of a drum of LLW shipped
to Hanford this year. The unopened drum was returned to Fermilab
for investigation. After locating and removing the battery, we
returned the drum to Hanford on March 6, 1998. As a consequence
of this incident, Hanford operators were to perform surveillance
on 10% of the containers in our next shipment to verify their
content. No further problems were found.
3.0 Environmental Monitoring and Surveillance
The goal of the Fermilab Environmental
Monitoring Program is to assist Laboratory management in decision-making
by providing data relevant to impacts that Fermilab operations
have on the surrounding environment. The Environmental Monitoring
Program consists of effluent monitoring to confirm compliance
with permits, generally at a particular point, and environmental
surveillance conducted at various locations to intercept the pathway
of potential pollutants to receptors such as plants, animals or
members of the public. We collect environmental data for reporting
purposes or whenever it is necessary or useful in conducting the
business of the Laboratory. Line organizations have the responsibility
to recognize and understand the environmental aspects of their
operations and to conduct their work in an environmentally sound
The pathways available for
movement of radioactive materials and chemicals from Fermilab
operations to the public are the atmosphere, surface water and
groundwater. Environmental surveillance consists of collecting
and analyzing samples of various media and measuring penetrating
radiation. Samples are collected and radiation is measured from
areas both within and outside the site boundaries.
Ground and surface waters
are sampled at locations near operating areas, potential contamination
sources and along potential transport pathways. In addition to
air and water surveillance, samples of soil are collected and
radiation is measured to determine the effectiveness of effluent
controls and to ascertain whether there is any build-up of radioactive
materials as a result of long-term operations.
Surface water, air, groundwater, soil and sediment samples are monitored for radionuclide concentrations. Surface waters are also monitored for potential chemical constituents. While levels of penetrating radiation are measurable near operational areas on the site, the levels decrease rapidly with distance from the sources. External penetrating radiation and airborne emissions are normally below instrument detection levels at the site boundary and must be estimated to provide information about the maximum potential radiation doses to offsite populations. The results of the environmental surveillance program are interpreted and compared with environmental standards where applicable. The
Fermilab Environmental Monitoring
Strategy, which is maintained by the ES&H Section, provides
The potential for public exposure
to air pollution from Fermilab is very low. We have an air pollution
permit issued by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency
(IEPA) under the Clean Air Act, including a ìNational Emissions
Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutantsî or NESHAPs element,
which covers airborne radionuclides.
Airborne radionuclides are
normally released to the atmosphere from target stations operating
in the Fixed Target and in the Antiproton Source areas. Monitoring
is conducted at targeting areas where air emissions are considered
to be a significant contributor to the overall transport of radioactive
materials offsite. The Magnet Debonding Oven at the Industrial
Complex also contributes a small quantity of airborne radionuclides
when operating. Our application states that total releases will
average no greater than 100 Ci/year with a maximum of 900 Ci/year.
The radiation doses potentially
received offsite by the public are calculated from data gathered
through environmental surveillance of the onsite sources. The
dose for the air pathway is calculated using a Gaussian plume
computer simulation model called CAP-88PC. This model was created
by USEPA to predict the movement of airborne radionuclides and
its use is required by regulations governing hazardous air pollutants
at 40CFR61. Maximum calculated concentrations offsite are predicted
to be below the level that can be detected by monitoring.
Fermilab is not a significant
source of chemical air pollution. Our permits cover emissions
caused by open burning conducted for prairie management and fire
extinguisher training, operation of various boilers and total
organic emissions from vapor degreasing operations. Pollutant
levels are estimated based on the knowledge of the processes that
generate them and the characteristics of individual pollutants.
3.1.1 Radioactive Air Emissions
During Calendar Year 1997
protons were focused onto numerous targets in the Fixed Target
Area as well as the Antiproton Source Area. Airborne radionuclides
11C, 13N, and 41Ar were identified in emissions from AP0 and monitored
beamline stacks. The Debonding Oven, a potential source of tritium
only while radioactive components are being burned, was not used
in CY1997. The releases from the AP0 stack in the Anti-Proton
Area and from the stacks in the Fixed Target Area (M05, NM2, NW8,
ME6, TSB spur, PW8, and PB4) resulted in an estimated total released
activity of approximately 29.48 Curies in 1997. This is an increase
over the 21 Curies released in 1996 when the Fixed Target Area
only ran for 7 months out of the year. Emission measurements
were taken at the sources and levels are well within the limits
of our current air pollution permit application on file with the
Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA). No detectable
levels of radionuclides reached the site boundaries.
The CAP-88PC computer modeling
results for CY1997 emissions showed that the maximum dose equivalent
potentially delivered to a member of the public at the site boundary
has remained considerably less than 0.1 mrem. The maximum potential
dose for 1997 was 0.015 mrem, a slight increase over last year's
0.01 mrem. This increase was due to the operation of the Fixed
Target Beamlines in addition to continued operation of the Anti-Proton
Area this year. Emissions for CY1997 continue to be well below
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 mrem/year
to a member of the public and also much less than the EPAís
continuous monitoring threshold of 0.1 mrem/year.
This year, the estimated collective
dose equivalent delivered to the public within a 50 mile radius
through radioactive air emissions from Fermilab was 0.031 person-rem,
comparable to that reported for CY1996. Fermilabís CY1997
Radionuclide Air Emissions Annual Report was submitted to DOE
in May 1998.
3.1.2 Non-Radioactive Air Emissions
The IEPA decided in late 1996
that the level of emissions at the Laboratory do not warrant the
issuance of a Federally Enforceable State Operating Permit (FESOP).
Operations were reviewed by Fermilab personnel again this year
to ensure that permitted equipment continued to operate and be
maintained in accordance with permit conditions. The estimated
concentrations of pollutants emitted were slightly less than last
year. The degreasers, small sources of non-volatile organic material
(non-VOM) emissions, were not used in 1997. There were no instances
of non-compliant emissions in CY1997. The 1997 Annual Air Emission
Report on criteria pollutants was submitted to the Illinois Environmental
Protection Agency (IEPA) in April 1998.
3.2 Penetrating Radiation
Operation of the Fermilab
accelerator and associated beamlines produces ionizing radiation
such as muons. Beamlines and experiments are designed so that
most of the muons range out under the ground surface. However,
some emerge above the surface and present a small potential for
radiation dose. Storage of radioactive materials onsite results
in another potential exposure to ionizing radiation. These sources
of penetrating radiation are monitored throughout the site at
locations based on criteria outlined in the Fermilab Monitoring
Strategy. Dose estimates incorporate the extremely conservative
assumption that a single individual could be exposed for an entire
year at the site boundary. Effective dose equivalents obtained
due to natural causes (i.e., cosmic rays, terrestrial sources
and indoor radon, etc.) average approximately 300 mrem/year.
During the CY1997 accelerator
run, the potential muon sources were the Fixed Target MC, NC,
NT, KTeV, PB, PC, PW and ME beamlines, the C0 Beam Absorber and
the AP0 target. The effective dose equivalent due to each beamlineís
operation at their respective nearest site boundary locations
was estimated to be: 0.016 mrem/year from the C0 Beam Absorber,
0.107 mrem/year from the MC beamline, 0.110 mrem/year from the
NC beamline, 3.44 mrem/year from the NT beamline, and 0.314 mrem/year
from the PB beamline. These estimates were calculated using records
of the number of protons delivered to these locations and mrem/proton
measurements made at the site boundary. No significant muon fluences
were detected onsite or offsite from the AP0, MT, ME, PC, PW,
NW and KTeV beamlines in CY1997. Radioactive material stored
at the Railhead accounted for no measurable dose equivalent rate
at the site boundary in CY1997. This is due to the continued
reduction of radioactive material storage and improved shielding
of remaining radioactive items. Consequently, the maximum radiation
dose to an individual at the nearest offsite house was not measurable
3.3 Surface Waters
Fermilab discharges liquid
effluent to surface water bodies and to publicly owned treatment
works in Batavia and Warrenville. We hold a National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit to discharge commingled
non-process, non-contact cooling water and stormwater runoff to
surface waters through outfalls to Kress, Indian and Ferry Creeks.
Due to the presence of the RCRA-permitted (Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act) Hazardous Waste Storage Facility onsite, the
permit also regulates stormwater discharges from designated solid
waste management units (SWMUs). A Stormwater Pollution Prevention
Plan is frequently modified to reflect changes that occur as part
of the RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) of the SWMU sites. The
Lab also continues to maintain a Stormwater Pollution Prevention
Plan in conjunction with our NPDES permit to construct the Fermilab
An NPDES pre-treatment permit
allows us to release a treated effluent from the Central Utility
Building regeneration process to the City of Batavia sanitary
sewer system. In addition to the monitoring required by our NPDES
permits, samples of surface water are taken annually from selected
bodies of water onsite and analyzed for radionuclides. We sample
surface waters on the basis of their potential for contamination.
Chemical and physical parameters are not normally monitored in
surface waters because Laboratory policies are designed to direct
effluents into the sanitary sewers. Maximizing allowable discharges
to the sanitary systems directs contaminants to the publicly owned
treatment works (POTW) and minimizes environmental contamination.
3.3.1 Radioactive Releases to Surface Water
Numerous sumps located throughout
the site collect and drain water from building footings and from
under beamline tunnels in the Tevatron enclosure and the Experimental
Areas. Water collected by these sumps often contains detectable
concentrations of radionuclides (primarily tritium, 3H)
that have been leached by rainwater from radioactive soil near
beam targets and absorbers or released accidentally to sumps from
beamline cooling water systems. Surface water monitoring conducted
during CY1997 showed tritium concentrations to be less than the
Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides for allowable
radionuclide releases to surface waters (2000 pCi/ml). Only six
of seventy-eight samples taken from onsite ditches, ponds and
creeks showed a detectable level of tritium, the highest of which
was 110 pCi/ml.
The effluent from the Central
Utility Building regeneration process was sampled prior to each
discharge and analyzed for accelerator-produced radionuclides.
Approximately 4.47 mCi of beryllium-7, 0.07 mCi of sodium-22
and 2.95 mCi of tritium were released to the sanitary sewer during
1997. This anticipated increase over last year is due to the
regeneration of activated deionization bottles from the Fixed
3.3.2 Non-Radioactive Releases to Surface Water
Monitoring for non-radiological
chemical constituents in surface water was limited to NPDES permit
parameters this year.
In October 1997 there was
a small release of oil-contaminated water to a ditch when water
was pumped from a manhole at the Master Substation prior to maintenance
and without first identifying possible oil contaminants in the
pit. Booms were installed to prevent the spread of the oil sheen
until cleanup could be accomplished. The oil contamination is
thought to have originated from the T82A transformer failure of
many years ago. This incident demonstrated the importance of
effluent surveillance during manhole pumping operations.
18.104.22.168 Cooling Water System
Our NPDES permit for the cooling
water system requires that water temperature and pH be monitored
at all three outfalls and reported to the IEPA on a monthly basis.
Chlorine concentration is recorded for the Kress and Indian Creek
outfalls. Due to problems with chlorine exceedances last year,
we submitted a proposed NPDES permit modification to the IEPA
for the installation and operation of a dechlorinator and to notify
them of a change in treatment chemicals to be used in the Industrial
Cooling Water system. The IEPA determined that a permit modification
was not necessary. The dechlorination equipment has been installed
and is operational. During 1997, the permit limit for total chlorine
(0.05 mg/l) was never exceeded.
In late November 1997, the
discovery of a large number of water leaks at welded joints in
the newly installed Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) Low Conductivity
Water (LCW) system prompted an extensive investigative effort
to determine the cause and extent of the damage. Inappropriate
weld specifications and inspection, coupled with standing water
in the LCW system, apparently provided an environment conducive
to bacterial action which aggressively degraded most of the joints.
The initial response was to use biocide to kill the existing
bacteria. Next, a complete survey of damage was undertaken utilizing
x-ray radiography and video cameras. It was determined that approximately
75% of the piping in the tunnel contained severely compromised
welds. Welds were repaired and cleaned. It is anticipated that
a long term maintenance program will include the installation
of ultraviolet sterilization devices and the initiation of a program
to monitor for bacterial growth.
Routine maintenance projects
for the LCW systems were also reviewed to ensure NPDES compliance.
These projects require the intermittent discharge of cooling
waters from the beamline enclosures to surface waters. Effluents
from these areas discharge to surface waters onsite and ultimately
leave the site via Ferry and Indian Creek outfalls. The annual
cumulative volume to be routinely discharged from these systems
is expected to be a few thousand gallons. Less than once per
year a major maintenance project such as the work currently going
on at the FMI could require a discharge of up to 50,000 gallons.
In March 1998, the IEPA determined that a NPDES permit modification
is not required for these discharges.
22.214.171.124 Releases to Sanitary Sewers
The pretreatment permit for
the Central Utility Building regeneration effluent requires the
collection and analysis of composite process effluent samples
for specified metals. Samples are analyzed for radionuclides
as well in order to confirm that insignificant amounts of activity
are released. In order to provide information on the process,
these samples are taken at the process release point rather than
at the site boundary where Fermilab actually discharges to the
Batavia municipal sewers. Concentrations in the process effluent
would actually be greatly diluted by other wastewaters prior to
reaching the site boundary where the Batavia city ordinance on
sewer discharges is applicable. Heavy metal analytical results
are submitted to the IEPA. Analyzed samples from the process
effluent have never been in exceedance of the Batavia Sanitary
Sewage Ordinance or the Department of Energy Derived Concentration
Guide which specify discharge limits.
Sampling stations at site
boundary locations monitor sewer discharges to each municipality.
Analytical results are compared to municipal discharge limits
to track compliance. The Batavia sewer sampler showed several
exceedances of the iron discharge limit (5.0 mg/l). Three samples
yielded iron concentrations from 7.3 mg/l to 9.3 mg/l and another
had iron at levels greater than 50 mg/ml. These high concentrations
are thought to be related to the routine flushing of the water
system conducted during those months and also due to the flushing
of the line between Well W-3 and the main line when Well W-3 was
used after a period of inactivity. Although these excursions
do not present a health concern, the site operations group was
Approximately 40,000 gallons
of sanitary sewer water was discharged to the Village Oxidation
Pond during the Labor Day weekend in order to repair a leak that
had developed in the dry well at the pump station where sanitary
sewage is pumped from Fermilab to the city of Warrenville. No
water left the pond. Samples taken after the event indicated
no metal contaminants were released into surface waters. Following
this event a number of upgrades were made to the system and the
option to discharge to the pond was eliminated.
Forty-four of sixty-five onsite
wells were sampled during the year for various radionuclides or
chemical parameters. The applicable regulatory limits for groundwater
are water quality standards published by the State. Class I groundwater
is considered to be a non-degradable resource and is highly protected.
The water that is located in or near the dolomite aquifer 50
to 70 feet below ground surface of Fermilab is generally considered
to be Class I groundwater. Water in the overlying till is usually
considered to be Class II water and has less stringent standards.
This year four new background
monitoring wells were installed in locations upgradient to Fermilab
operations. These wells are capable of obtaining representative
samples of the upper Class I groundwaters for either chemical
or radiochemical analysis. They have been added to the sampling
plan for 1998. Four new wells were also installed this year at
the Central Utility Building (CUB) Tile Field to support an ongoing
RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) at that site. Seventeen piezometers
were constructed near the New Muon Building to gather information
on the direction of groundwater flow that will be used in modeling
the transport of potential contaminants. Six piezometers were
installed as part of the NuMI (Neutrinos at Main Injector) site
characterization to plan for groundwater protection. Fermilab
continues to analyze groundwater issues associated with this proposed
construction project that involves construction within the dolomite
aquifer. Three monitoring wells at the Master Substation were
properly abandoned in November 1997.
The Department of Energy groundwater
concentration guide and the Illinois Class I groundwater standard
for tritium are 20 pCi/ml. Tritium was detected in one of four
Central Utility Building Tile Field monitoring wells in CY1997.
After the installation of new dedicated pumps in these wells,
resampling showed tritium levels in all four wells to be less
than the detection limit of 0.19 pCi/ml.
During 1997, Fermilab embarked
on a comprehensive program to identify areas where contamination
of the soil and groundwater by accelerator operations might be
possible. The Fermilab Director appointed a number of multi-disciplinary
review committees chartered to analyze radiological and hydrogeological
conditions. Various work groups were commissioned to look at
AP0, C0, Neutrino, PE, Switchyard, Booster, MI-40, M-Center, KTeV,
and P-West areas. The Head of the Beams Division extended this
study by appointing several committees to review the design of
additional target stations that are planned for physics research
in the near future. The committees utilized theoretical evaluations,
collection and analysis of radiological and hydrogeological data,
and reviews of historical data and design details to characterize
each area and to recommend further empirical studies or monitoring
actions. Analysis results from concrete corings obtained near
AP0 will be compared to the predictions from the CASIM model.
The information collected by the various review committees is
still being assimilated. Once finished, any recommendations for
improvements to the design of the accelerator shielding to prevent
environmental contamination by activation and for upgrades to
our monitoring program to assess potential environmental impacts
will be implemented. Several of the recommendations of these
committees are already in the implementation stage. An ad
hoc group has already been established to further evaluate
the present groundwater concentration model.
A need to upgrade shielding
beneath the Booster West Tower resulted in a project to characterize
the geology and hydrogeology in that area in order to investigate
the environmental impacts of the project. With Beams Division
cooperation, samples of glacial sediments were taken below and
adjacent to the Booster tunnel and analyzed for radiochemical
content. Interpretation of results is pending.
In 1996, samples from all
five 45o angled monitoring wells drilled into the Neutrino
berm (four grouped closely in the vicinity of the Neutrino Target
Area and one farther upstream) contained tritium in measurable
concentrations, though most remained less than the Illinois Class
I groundwater standard of 20 pCi/ml for tritium. These wells
are finished in the till, at elevations varying from approximately
30 to 50 feet above the level of the Class I groundwater.
Tritium levels in groundwater
samples from one of the monitoring wells (S-1087) that was screened
below the bathtub area of the Neutrino Fixed Target Beamline increased
from <5 pCi/ml to as high as 69 pCi/ml. This well monitors
groundwater located midway between the bottom of the bathtub and
the Class I groundwater located approximately 70 feet below ground
surface. Concentrations of tritium have fluctuated at this well
since an abrupt increase was first noted in April 1995. Well
recharge studies are consistent with the hypothesis that well
construction causes the transport of contamination to lower elevations
and results in the observed increase and fluctuation.
Last year saw the completion
of a study to characterize the hydrogeology at two areas along
the Neutrino Fixed Target Beamline in order to determine the source
of the increased tritium levels in the samples from S-1087. The
purpose of this project was to gain a better understanding of
the underlying glacial deposits and the upper bedrock. It also
extended our monitoring network beyond its current capabilities
from within the glacial deposits to the Class I groundwater in
the vicinity of this area of soil activation. Piezometers were
installed at NS1 and NS2 Service Buildings to determine the vertical
and horizontal groundwater flow gradients. Once the horizontal
gradient was established, three monitoring wells were installed
in the upper dolomite down-gradient of NS1 and NS2. A new technology
in drilling was utilized in this project to provide undisturbed
core material for better characterization and analysis of the
geological environment beneath these locations. Sampling of the
newly developed wells along the Neutrino beam lines was begun
in December 1996. Water samples from all three wells were analyzed,
and the levels of tritium in all were below 1 pCi/ml, the detection
limit of our onsite Activation Analysis Lab. This new information
will be provided to the IEPA as part of an ongoing RCRA Facility
Investigation of the activated soil in areas along the Neutrino
Continued monitoring of groundwater
flow parameters (gradient and direction) indicates that they are
very stable. As a result of this project, the remaining 45o
angled wells have been removed from the routine sampling schedule.
The four angled wells in the vicinity of the Neutrino Target
Area will be replaced by a state-of-the-art monitoring well, and
then subsequently removed and closed according to State guidelines.
Closing these wells will remove a potential pathway for tritium
soil contamination in the activated areas adjacent to beamlines.
The new monitoring wells will be designed and installed to eliminate
construction concerns. The new monitoring system will be capable
of sampling groundwater in the glacial deposits at the same elevation
as the old wells.
Analytical results from all
other wells onsite showed no measurable concentrations of tritium
or other accelerator-produced radionuclides in CY1997.
Two rounds of groundwater
samples were collected during CY1997 from the four monitoring
wells installed in the fractured dolomite at the CUB Tile Field.
Water samples from the wells used to monitor an old perforated
pipe field within the Main Ring continued to yield measurable
levels of chloride, chromium and other metals. Metal concentrations
were generally less than the IEPA Class II groundwater standards.
One sample exceeded the limit for manganese and another slightly
exceeded the nickel limit. Chloride concentrations in the vicinity
of the Central Utility Building Tile Field continued to exceed
the chloride standard for Class II groundwater. Samples for these
analyses were collected from seven monitoring wells finished in
the glacial till (from 15 to 40 feet below ground level and 20
to 45 feet above the aquifer). A Phase II Workplan for this area
is part of the RFI (RCRA Facility Investigation) and will further
address any remediation needed at this location.
4.0 A Summary of Compliance
With Specific Environmental Regulations
Clean Air Act
Open burn permits to allow
prairie management burning and fire extinguisher training were
renewed in 1997. Annual air emissions reports for CY1996 were
submitted to the IEPA and EPA on schedule in 1997.
Underground Storage Tanks
An internal audit was conducted
of the Fuel Service Center Leak Detection System during the second
quarter of 1997. A tabletop spill drill was held for the Fuel
Service Center in the 3rd quarter of 1997.
No compliance issues were identified.
Department of Transportation
An internal audit of Fermilab implementation
of DOT regulations was conducted in the 4th quarter of 1997.
No compliance issues were identified.
The Endangered Species Act of 1973
No compliance issues were
identified in CY1997.
Executive Order 11988, ìFloodplain Managementî
No compliance issues were
identified in CY1997.
Executive Order 11990, ìProtection of Wetlandsî
Evaluation of Fermilab activities
in wetlands is accomplished through the NEPA review process.
No new compliance issues were identified in CY1997.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
In CY1997, the use of pesticides
and herbicides at Fermilab was handled in accordance with FIFRA.
The Migratory Bird Treaty Act
There were no compliance issues
identified in CY1997.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
Fermilab met these requirements by continuing to implement a program of reviewing all of its activities for compliance as set forth in the Fermilab Environmental Safety and Health Manual Chapter 8060. This year an Environmental Assessment (EA) was completed for a proposal to construct a new particle beamline (NuMI) that would direct muon neutrinos from the Fermilab Main Injector to detectors at Fermilab and in northern Minnesota. An EA was also completed for the deer management program proposed by the USDA. Findings Of No Significant Impact (FONSIs) on the environment were issued for both NuMI and
the deer management program
in January 1998. Other NEPA reviews completed in 1997 included
the A-0 Photoinjector and the Giese Road Containment projects.
National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), Archaeological Resources Protection Act, Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) of 1990
Compliance with these Acts
was accomplished through the NEPA review process that included
an evaluation of all proposed land-disturbing projects in CY1997
to assess any potential impacts on historic resources. No compliance
issues were identified in CY1997.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)
As a condition of our RCRA
Part B permit, the IEPA has required Fermilab to undertake a RCRA
Facility Investigation (RFI). The purpose of the RFI is to investigate
whether hazardous constituents have been released to the environment
from identified solid waste management units (SWMUs) located onsite.
In addition to requiring the reporting of newly identified SWMUs,
RCRA also requires IEPA be notified of any changes to a previously
In early 1995, the IEPA was
notified that the Railhead Storage Yard might contain lead contamination
not originally identified and that Fermilab planned to investigate
this concern. In 1996, Fermilab conducted an evaluation of the
environmental impact resulting from the storage of lead (e.g.,
bricks) and lead-containing materials (e.g., Nevis shielding blocks)
at the Railhead. At the IEPAís request we prepared and
implemented a sampling plan to determine the rate and extent of
lead contamination. A report on this Phase II sampling conducted
during the first quarter of 1997 indicated that four areas within
the Railhead Area had contamination in excess of the remediation
standard. The Nevis shielding blocks had been stored in three
of these areas. Results of this Phase II sampling were submitted
to the Agency during the second quarter of 1997. The three identified
areas were excavated down to clay and the lead-contaminated soil
was disposed of as hazardous waste. The soil at the bottom of
the excavations was sampled, analyzed and found to be non-hazardous.
The Phase II investigation for this SWMU is considered to be
nearly complete. Almost two-thirds of the shield blocks were
reused in the KTeV shielding. Because the remaining blocks are
now under roof, they do not present an ongoing environmental hazard
and no further action is planned at this time.
The State asked for similar
ìrate and extentî studies for the CUB tile field
and the Village Machine Shop. Phase II reports have been submitted
for these sites and the projects are nearing completion. The
Agency also determined in 1997 that four new potential solid waste
management units that we identified and characterized in 1996
would require no further investigation.
The State also provided guidance
on permanent closure of the Meson Hill ìlandfillî.
A closure plan was prepared and submitted to the IEPA in the
second quarter of 1997. This plan was approved and during the
third quarter, closure activities including moving concrete, grading,
installing a clay cap and placing topsoil on the clay cap were
accomplished. Hydroseeding of the top of the hill and a site
inspection were completed by the end of the year. Six piezometers
that had been placed around the perimeter of the hill have been
properly sealed. This closure is considered to be nearly complete.
The IEPA has sent us final security and monitoring requirements
for the landfill and monitoring has commenced.
The USEPA conducted an inspection
of the Fermilab RCRA facilities on September 29 and 30, 1997.
It included a review of waste manifests, annual reports, training
records, the contingency plan, the closure plans, the Part B permit
and operating records. Satellite waste accumulation areas and
the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility were also visited. No deficiencies
The volume of regulated chemical
waste collected in CY1997, 54.2 cubic meters, was up from last
year's total. The increase was due to waste generated in the
maintenance of beamline areas that had been inaccessible for a
while. The volume of low-level radioactive waste collected this
year decreased to 28.3 cubic meters.
Safe Drinking Water Act
Fermilab provides drinking
water to its employees through two Fermilab-operated public water
supplies and a satellite supply connected to the City of Warrenville
public water supply. Full jurisdiction for Fermilab's public
water supplies was transferred from the Illinois Environmental
Protection Agency (IEPA) to the Illinois Department of Public
Health (IDPH) in 1996. Initially, this involved an IDPH review
of our existing monitoring program that determined that our program
was compliant with their regulations.
During CY1997 the action level
for lead (Pb) in drinking water was exceeded in samples from the
distribution system for both the Main Site and D-Zero public water
supplies. While not a compliance issue, this required additional
sampling, distribution of educational materials describing the
hazards of lead in drinking water and the development of corrosion
control plans. The Lab completed a corrosion control plan to
address high lead levels in the Main Site drinking water and it
was submitted to the IDPH in January 1997. Notification was submitted
to the IDPH in December 1997 that public education had been distributed
for both the Main Site and D-Zero supplies for lead action level
exceedances that occurred in samples taken from the Main Site
water distribution system in February and July 1997 and for D-Zero
in June 1997. The D0 supply exceeded the Pb action level again
in January 1998 and efforts are underway to remove any remaining
potential sources of lead contamination in the system. A revised
Main Site supply corrosion control plan that includes the installation
of an orthophosphate treatment system at Well W-1 is being prepared
for IDPH review and approval.
At the suggestion of the IDPH,
we completed the paperwork in September 1997 to defer sampling
of unregulated organic chemicals until negotiations between the
State and the EPA are complete over the list of parameters applicable
to Illinois water supplies. In addition to routine bacteriological
analysis, Fermilab completed the required testing for pesticides/herbicides
and nitrates for both water supplies this year. Onsite semi-private
wells (except Well 68 which is slated for decommissioning) were
also sampled for nitrates as well as coliform and found to be
In 1996, benzene levels that
were slightly elevated over the drinking water standard were found
in the water from a semi-private well at the Hazardous Waste Storage
Facility (HWSF). The benzene was thought to have originated from
a nearby remediated leaking underground storage tank site even
though the tank had been removed and the site cleaned to appropriate
standards. Activated charcoal and micron filters were installed
to remove traces of benzene and particulate matter from the water
supply for the emergency shower and eye wash station. Subsequent
analyses indicated that the filters were operating properly.
The source of the contamination appeared to be along the line
from the well, a length of approximately 50 yards. Neither the
well water nor the water to the house also located at Site 55
were contaminated. The water line to the HWSF was rerouted and
replaced in mid-CY1997. Subsequent sampling showed no benzene
in the water.
Other significant activities
in the area of drinking water included the development of a memorandum
of agreement between the Facility Engineering Services Section
and the ES&H Section over the ìFermilab Domestic Water
Program Responsibilitiesî and a subsequent tripartite assessment
of the drinking water program which found the program to have
improved greatly over the past year.
SARA TITLE III or Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA)
Under these regulations Fermilab
is required to provide the EPA, state and local officials with
an annual accounting of hazardous chemicals and extremely hazardous
chemicals used or stored onsite in quantities greater than a given
threshold. Reportable materials present at Fermilab in 1996 were
Freon R-11, Trimethylbenzene, Halon and ethylene glycol. The
SARA Title III Report for CY1996 was submitted to the EPA in mid-1997.
Our inventory of these materials was also submitted to state
and local emergency services and disaster agencies in early CY1998.
Kane County has requested more detailed information (Tier II).
The extra information will also be provided to DuPage County.
The inventory prepared for the CY1997 report was not available
at time of this report but it is not expected to be significantly
different from last year.
Oil Spill Prevention
Oil inventory at Fermilab
consists of numerous oil-filled electrical transformers ranging
in volume from 4 gallons to 17,300 gallons. There are no above-ground
oil storage tanks at Fermilab. The total volume of oil in transformers
onsite is estimated to be 251,681 gallons. Potential onsite oil
spill sources are located (with one exception) such that spillways
can be effectively used to prevent any oil spills from leaving
site and entering State Waters. The only exception is the transformer
at Giese Road (1695 gallons) near Indian Creek. This transformer
is located downstream of the Indian Creek spillway and therefore
has the potential for spilling directly into State Waters. A
project to upgrade the secondary containment for this transformer
was completed this year. Many onsite transformers already employ
secondary containment as an added precaution.
Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA)
The application of TSCA requirements
to Fermilab involves the regulation of polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs) and asbestos. Significant strides in PCB management were
made at Fermilab in CY1997.
An EPA-approved plan is underway
to remediate PCB-contaminated soil at twenty-four transformer
sites located at service buildings around the Main Ring. The
contamination occurred as a consequence of past (pre-TSCA) sampling
procedures in which transformer oil containing 2-5% PCBs was drained
onto the ground as part of a sampling procedure to verify that
dielectric properties had not deteriorated. Cleanup efforts at
these transformer yards continued in 1997. We have now completed
the cleanup of 8 sites out of the total of 24 needing attention.
Removal of PCB-contaminated soil and concrete at the four F-sector
Main Ring service buildings was initiated in November 1997. The
removal of contaminated concrete pads at A3 and the cleanup of
a small spill on the truck lane asphalt at B4 were also added
to the job. All of these areas were declared clean by early January
1998. Further transformer yard cleanups are planned for the fall
In January 1995, in preparation
for shipping large, high-voltage Linac capacitors to the warehouse
for storage as spares, the manufacturer was contacted to verify
the nature of the dielectric oil. Contrary to an earlier report,
the manufacturer stated that the units probably contained PCBs.
Sampling confirmed that the oil was 100% PCB. Work to remove
the capacitors and to decontaminate the cabinets which held them
continued in 1997 according to a plan devised in May 1995. The
first phase of this work began in October 1997. The second phase
was completed during the holiday shutdown. The final report from
the contractor has not yet been received, but a preliminary review
of sampling data indicates that cleanup of the cabinets was successful
in meeting standards for unrestricted use except for one cable
which was clean enough to allow encapsulation with epoxy paint.
The EPA has verbally approved this approach. One hundred and
ten PCB Linac capacitors from this project were shipped for disposal
in the fourth quarter of 1997.
A milestone was also reached
this year when the last 6 Main Ring pulsed-power transformers
containing regulated concentrations of PCBs were shipped offsite
for disposal in early October 1997.
The Giese Road transformer
was retrofilled with mineral oil in September 1997, reducing its
PCB concentration to less than 50 ppm.
The inventory of TSCA-regulated PCB equipment
is now zero.
Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention
In 1997 Fermilab recycled
nearly 100 metric tons of solid waste. Reductions were made in
volumes of waste disposed in dumpsters. The installation of a
press has allowed four-fold volume reduction of activated metal
and has resulted in decreased disposal costs. A baler was obtained
to aid in the recycling effort but unfortunately the cardboard
recycling services had to be drastically cutback this year due
to various factors including the decline in the price of cardboard.
The operations at Fermilab during CY1997 had no significant adverse impact on the environment or on public safety.